Iron (as Iron Amino Acid Chelate) - Iron deficiency has been reported to cause behavioral and developmental symptoms by affecting transmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine, myelination, and the metabolic activity in the neurons. Iron treatment has been thought to increase sleep quality of the patients by decreasing RLS complaints. Multiple clinical studies support this evidence.
Magnesium Citrate - Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body and is involved in hundreds of biochemical reactions. Every cell in your body contains it and needs it to function, but, unfortunately, 50% of people in the U.S. and Europe have suboptimal levels. Magnesium plays a vital role in overall brain function and mood and suboptimal levels have been directly linked to an increased risk of depression. As Healthline reported, "supplementing with this mineral may help reduce symptoms of depression and in some cases, the results can be dramatic."
L-Theanine - L-Theanine is a non-essential amino acid commonly found in black and green tea and plays a fundamental role in maintaining a healthy mental state. L-theanine has shown the ability to reduce stress and anxiety in individuals who are dealing with stressful situations. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry that focused on people with Schizophrenia found that L-theanine decreased stress and anxiety and improved Schizophrenia symptoms.
Valerian Root Extract - Valerian root is an herb native to Europe and Asia and is now also grown in the US and China among other countries. Valerian root contains a number of compounds and antioxidants that help promote sleep, ease restlessness, and reduce anxiety. Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit damage to cells by harmful free radicals. Valerian root contains the antioxidants hesperidin and linarin which have sleep-enhancing and calming properties.
Valerian root has a unique interaction with GABA, a chemical messenger that helps regulate nerve impulses in your brain and nervous system. Studies have shown that low levels of GABA are related to chronic stress, anxiety, and low-quality sleep. Valerian root, more specifically, valerenic acid has shown the ability to inhibit the breakdown of GABA in the brain resulting in feelings of calmness and decreased feelings of stress and anxiety.
Passionflower Herb Extract - Passionflower is a climbing-like vine, native to the southeastern United States and Central and South America. Clinical studies show that passionflower has anxiety-calming effects and can effectively help reduce anxiety levels. For example, in one clinical trial, researchers found passionflower had results similar to that of a prescription-based anti-anxiety medication. In fact, certain studies suggest passionflower may work as effectively as some anxiety prescription medication. Additionally, a 2016 clinical trial found that passionflower decreased anxiety and improved memory in the participants. Two other clinical trials found that passionflower has sedative effects. These effects could be due, in part, to passionflower interacting with GABA levels in the brain.
Melatonin - Melatonin is a hormone naturally made by your body and is produced in the brain by the pineal gland. Melatonin works together with your body's circadian rhythm—which is your body's internal clock and lets you know when it is time to sleep, wake up, and eat.